The increasing number of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (E&HEVs) supposes that some strategic metals, increase their consumption.

Nowadays, the recovery of rare earths is of particular interest due to their use in smart technologies and scarce availability of their resources (i.e., here in the European Union); thus, the recycling of these metals became of interest. However, in the European Union, the rate of their recyclability is around 6% and 7% for the heavy and light rare earths, respectively.

Cerium and cerium compounds are of particular importance due to their application in strategical sectors, including rechargeable batteries; thus, cerium is considered a critical raw material by the EU.

Therefore, the importance of the circular economy to recover these strategic metals is pointed out. Our colleagues from @TecnoEcoGroup @CENIM_CISC have published a paper about the recovery of Ce here: https://www.mdpi.com/789944.